Troncale’s GST, Systems Processes Theory (SPT) also has as an isomorphy, non-linear causality, as a hallmark of complex systems. It is non-linear causality that gives the CAS of fame their unpredictability and raises the need for a revolution in the sciences from pure and unchallenged reductionism. In the SPT, major differences are noted for a taxonomy of more than a dozen TYPES or TAXONS of non-linear causality.¬†We include them under systems isomorphies to emphasize that they are active on all scalar levels and in all disciplines.

Wilson had observations on time and causality which are included here.